Free Walking Tour Berlin

When: Every day 10am & 12pm every day
Where: The meeting point is in front of the ehemaliges Kaiserliches Postfuhramt Berlin, Oranienburger Straße, 10117 Berlin, Germany, next to the entrance.
Price: Free

The Historical Significance of the Berlin Wall

by | Mar 7, 2024 | Original Berlin

Understanding the Construction of the Berlin Wall

The Berlin Wall, often referred to as the “Wall of Shame,” was a physical and ideological barrier erected by the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) to separate East Berlin from West Berlin during the height of the Cold War. Construction of the Berlin Wall began on August 13, 1961, and its impact on the city of Berlin and the world at large cannot be understated.

Throughout history, Germany has been a significant player on the geopolitical stage, experiencing alternating periods of unity and division. Following World War II, Germany was divided into four occupation zones controlled by the Allied powers: the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and France. The city of Berlin, located deep within Soviet-controlled territory, was also split into four sectors.

Escalating Tensions and the Need for a Barrier

In the years following the war, ideological differences between the Western powers and the Soviet Union intensified, leading to the onset of the Cold War. Berlin became a hotspot for geopolitical struggles as the city became symbolic of the larger East-West divide.

As tensions escalated, the number of East Berliners fleeing to the west increased significantly. This “brain drain” was a significant blow to the East German economy and political system. In response, the East German government, with the support of the Soviet Union, decided to construct a physical barrier to halt the mass exodus of its citizens.

The Construction Begins

On August 13, 1961, the East German authorities started building what would later become known as the Berlin Wall. The initial construction consisted of barbed wire fencing and concrete barriers to close off the border between East and West Berlin, with checkpoints and guard towers strategically placed to monitor and prevent unauthorized crossings.

Over time, the wall evolved, becoming more fortified and formidable. The initial makeshift barriers were eventually replaced with a 12-foot high concrete wall, reinforced by guard towers, anti-vehicle trenches, and an extensive network of barbed wire fences. It effectively turned Berlin into a divided city, creating an impenetrable physical barrier.

Impact and Consequences

Symbol of the Cold War

The construction of the Berlin Wall symbolized the division of not only a city but also an entire world. It served as a stark reminder of the ideological differences and the intense competition between communism and capitalism that defined the Cold War era.

Following the construction of the wall, families and friends were suddenly separated, preventing communication and contact between loved ones. Streets were blocked, and cultural and economic exchanges between the two sides of the city came to an abrupt halt.

Escape Attempts and Tragic Losses

The Berlin Wall made escape attempts incredibly dangerous and often deadly. Thousands of East Germans risked their lives in search of freedom. Some attempted to jump over the wall, while others tunneled under it. However, those who were caught faced consequences ranging from imprisonment to even death.

One of the most well-known examples is the tragic story of Peter Fechter, an 18-year-old East German who was shot while trying to scale the wall in broad daylight. Despite his desperate pleas for help, he bled to death in the no man’s land between East and West Berlin. His tragic death became a powerful symbol of the inhumanity of the wall.

The Fall of the Berlin Wall

After 28 years, the Berlin Wall finally fell on November 9, 1989. The fall of the wall marked a pivotal moment in history and symbolized the end of the Cold War. It was a result of widespread protests, political pressure, and shifting geopolitical dynamics.

The fall of the Berlin Wall led to the reunification of Germany and inspired similar movements seeking freedom and democracy in other parts of the world. It represented the triumph of human spirit and the power of people coming together to overcome seemingly insurmountable obstacles.


The construction and subsequent fall of the Berlin Wall were defining moments in world history. The wall, though intended to divide and control, ultimately became a symbol of resistance and the human desire for freedom. Its impact on the people of Berlin and the world brought about significant political, social, and cultural changes, serving as a constant reminder of the importance of unity and the dangers of division.

Thank you for reading. If you're inspired by the stories of Berlin and want to delve deeper, why not join us on our Free Berlin Walking Tour? It's a wonderful way to immerse yourself in the city's rich history and vibrant culture. We look forward to welcoming you soon.


  • 3.5 hours walking tour
  • Berlin’s major highlights
  • Brandenburg Gate
  • Reichstag and Berlin Wall
  • Historical sites

Free Walking Tour Berlin

When: Every day 10am & 12pm every day
Where: The meeting point is in front of the ehemaliges Kaiserliches Postfuhramt Berlin, Oranienburger Straße, 10117 Berlin, Germany, next to the entrance.
Price: Free