Free Walking Tour Berlin

When: Every day 10am & 12pm every day
Where: The meeting point is in front of the ehemaliges Kaiserliches Postfuhramt Berlin, Oranienburger Straße, 10117 Berlin, Germany, next to the entrance.
Price: Free

Unveiling the Origins of the Berlin Wall

by | Mar 7, 2024 | Original Berlin

The Historical Background

The Berlin Wall, also known as “Die Berliner Mauer” in German, was a physical barrier that divided Berlin into East and West between 1961 and 1989. Its construction was a result of complex historical events influenced by the Cold War tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union.

Rising Tensions between Superpowers

After World War II, Germany was divided into four occupation zones managed by the victors: the United States, the Soviet Union, France, and the United Kingdom. Berlin, although located entirely within Soviet-controlled East Germany, was similarly divided into four sectors between the powers.

As the Cold War intensified, ideological differences deepened, and the relations between the Western powers and the Soviet Union worsened. East Germany, under the control of the Soviet Union, began to experience significant economic challenges and a subsequent wave of migration to West Germany through Berlin.

The Construction of the Berlin Wall

To halt the massive population exodus to the democratic West, the East German government implemented stricter border controls between East and West Berlin. This resulted in increased political tension and a severe economic drain on the East German regime.

The Overnight Barrier

On August 13, 1961, the East German government officially closed the border between East and West Berlin. Overnight, barbed wire fences and barricades were constructed, preventing East Germans from crossing into West Berlin and reunifying with their families or seeking better opportunities.

The initial makeshift barrier was later replaced by a more substantial and fortified wall equipped with guard towers, anti-vehicle trenches, and a wide “death strip” cleared of any potential escape routes. The wall became a symbol of the divided city and the broader East-West conflict.

The Motives Behind the Wall

The construction of the Berlin Wall served several political and ideological purposes for East Germany and the Soviet Union.

Preventing a Brain Drain

One of the primary reasons for building the wall was to stop the mass emigration of skilled workers, professionals, and intellectuals from East Germany. The East German government feared that this continuous brain drain would cripple their economy and negatively impact political stability.

Tension Management

The wall also aimed to alleviate political tension between the United States and the Soviet Union. By physically separating East and West Berlin, the risk of direct conflicts and potential military escalations between the superpowers was reduced.

The Fall of the Berlin Wall

After nearly three decades of separation, political changes in East Germany and broader geopolitical shifts brought an end to the division.

The Winds of Change

In 1989, a wave of peaceful protests demanding democratic reforms swept through Eastern Europe. East Germans, fueled by frustration and seeking political freedom, took to the streets in large numbers.

The Historic Moment

On November 9, 1989, East German authorities unexpectedly announced that citizens were free to cross the border into West Berlin. This announcement led to an unprecedented flood of people gathering at the wall. Overwhelmed by the sheer magnitude of the crowd, the guards eventually opened the checkpoints, allowing East and West Berliners to pass freely for the first time in years. This historic event symbolized the end of the Cold War division.

The Legacy of the Berlin Wall

Today, the remnants of the Berlin Wall stand as a powerful reminder of the past and a testament to the human spirit. It serves as a memorial for the thousands who lost their lives attempting to cross the barrier and a historic landmark celebrating the reunification of Germany.

An Icon of Freedom

The fall of the Berlin Wall became a symbol of freedom, resilience, and the collective will for change. It resonates worldwide and serves as a reminder of the potential consequences of division and the importance of unity.

A Lesson for Future Generations

The Berlin Wall stands as a reminder of the darkest days of the Cold War and highlights the power of diplomatic solutions to resolve conflicts rather than walls. Its existence and eventual dismantling serve as a lesson for future generations to strive for peace, understanding, and cooperation.

Thank you for reading. If you're inspired by the stories of Berlin and want to delve deeper, why not join us on our Free Berlin Walking Tour? It's a wonderful way to immerse yourself in the city's rich history and vibrant culture. We look forward to welcoming you soon.


  • 3.5 hours walking tour
  • Berlin’s major highlights
  • Brandenburg Gate
  • Reichstag and Berlin Wall
  • Historical sites

Free Walking Tour Berlin

When: Every day 10am & 12pm every day
Where: The meeting point is in front of the ehemaliges Kaiserliches Postfuhramt Berlin, Oranienburger Straße, 10117 Berlin, Germany, next to the entrance.
Price: Free