Free Walking Tour Berlin

When: Every day 10am & 12pm every day
Where: The meeting point is in front of the ehemaliges Kaiserliches Postfuhramt Berlin, Oranienburger Straße, 10117 Berlin, Germany, next to the entrance.
Price: Free

Why was the Berlin Wall constructed and what were its consequences?

by | Mar 7, 2024 | Original Berlin

The Berlin Wall, a symbol of the Cold War and the division between East and West, has a significant place in German history. Built to prevent mass emigration and secure the East German government’s control, the construction of the Berlin Wall had vast social, political, and economic consequences. In this article, we explore the reasons behind its construction and the impact it had on Germany and the world.

1. The Historical Context

The origins of the Berlin Wall can be traced back to the aftermath of World War II. Following Germany’s defeat, the country was divided into four occupied zones controlled by the United States, Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union. Berlin, as the capital city, was situated within the Soviet-controlled zone but was also divided into four sectors.

The ideological differences between the Soviet Union and the Western Allies led to growing tensions, ultimately culminating in the Cold War. This ideological conflict between communism and democracy would shape the political landscape for decades to come.

2. Reasons for Construction

The construction of the Berlin Wall was primarily driven by two key factors:

2.1. Mass Emigration

During the early years of the divided Germany, a substantial number of people from East Germany (German Democratic Republic, GDR) started migrating to West Germany and West Berlin. The free movement between the sectors enabled many to take advantage of the economic opportunities, political freedom, and higher living standards found in the West.

As a result, East Germany began experiencing significant brain drain and labor shortages, threatening its economic stability and political legitimacy. To halt the mass exodus, the East German government sought to create physical barriers.

2.2. Political Control

The construction of the Berlin Wall also aimed to solidify the East German government’s control over its population. By isolating East Berliners from the influence of the West, the government hoped to prevent the spread of Western ideologies and preserve its grip on power.

3. Construction and Structure

The Berlin Wall was officially built on August 13, 1961. Its initial structure was a basic barbed-wire fence, later fortified with concrete walls, watchtowers, and additional security measures. The wall stretched for approximately 155 kilometers (96 miles) through the heart of Berlin, dividing the city into East and West.

Over time, the wall underwent several improvements, evolving into a highly fortified barrier. The “Death Strip,” an area behind the wall, was laden with alarms, tripwires, and guard towers, making escape attempts extremely perilous.

4. Human Impact of the Wall

The construction of the wall had far-reaching consequences for the people living in Berlin:

4.1. Separation of Families and Friends

The wall tore families apart, creating a physical and emotional divide between loved ones. Those residing in different sectors now found themselves cut off from their relatives, friends, and colleagues.

4.2. Loss of Freedom and Rights

East Berliners were suddenly trapped within the confines of the GDR. Their freedom of movement was severely restricted, and attempts to flee were met with harsh consequences, including imprisonment and even death.

4.3. Economic Disparities

The economic divide between East and West Germany widened due to the wall’s construction. West Berlin became an economic powerhouse, benefiting from flourishing trade and investment, while East Germany struggled with stagnation and limited external connections.

5. Fall of the Berlin Wall

The Berlin Wall stood as a symbol of division for 28 years, until its unexpected fall on November 9, 1989. The peaceful revolution that led to its demise was a pivotal moment in history, marking the reunification of Germany and the end of the Cold War.

This event reshaped Europe and demonstrated the power of people’s desire for freedom and unity. Parts of the wall were preserved as a memorial and serve as a poignant reminder of the division the world overcame.

Wrapping Up

The construction of the Berlin Wall and its subsequent fall hold great significance in the global political landscape. It was a stark symbol of the divide between communism and democracy, resulting in profound long-term consequences for Germany and the world. The wall’s construction aimed to halt mass emigration and secure political control but ultimately led to devastating human, social, and economic impacts. The fall of the wall, however, represented hope and unity, illustrating the power of peaceful revolution and the yearning for freedom.

Thank you for reading. If you're inspired by the stories of Berlin and want to delve deeper, why not join us on our Free Berlin Walking Tour? It's a wonderful way to immerse yourself in the city's rich history and vibrant culture. We look forward to welcoming you soon.


  • 3.5 hours walking tour
  • Berlin’s major highlights
  • Brandenburg Gate
  • Reichstag and Berlin Wall
  • Historical sites

Free Walking Tour Berlin

When: Every day 10am & 12pm every day
Where: The meeting point is in front of the ehemaliges Kaiserliches Postfuhramt Berlin, Oranienburger Straße, 10117 Berlin, Germany, next to the entrance.
Price: Free